python装饰器基础学习

为一个函数添加一个新功能

ceshi函数添加一个计算该函数运行时间的功能

改变了其调用方式 未添加新功能调用方式为ceshi()
import time
def show_time(func):
    start_time = time.time()
    func()
    end_time = time.time()
    print("speed %s"%(end_time-start_time))
def ceshi():
    print("测试函数.....")
    time.sleep(2)

show_time(ceshi)  #添加了新功能后的调用方式


不改变其调用方式
import time
def show_time(func):
    def inner():
        start_time = time.time()
        func()
        end_time = time.time()
        print("speed %s"%(end_time-start_time))
    return inner
@show_time  
`#ceshi=show_time(ceshi) ceshi为返回是添加新功能函数的inner的内存地址<function show_time.<locals>.inner at 0x002F41E0>`  
def ceshi():
    print("测试函数.....")
    time.sleep(2)  
ceshi()

为已有的函数添加新功能并不改变其调用方式这种称为装饰器函数


可以传参数的装饰器

用以上装饰器函数为例子,为装饰器添加一个日志记录的功能

import time 
def show_time(flag=""):   #多加一层函数只是为了获取一个变量
    def speed_time(f):
        def inner():
            start_time = time.time()
            f()
            end_time = time.time()
            print("speed %s"%(end_time-start_time))
            if flag=='true':
                print("打印日志")
        return inner
    return speed_time

@show_time('true')  #为装饰器传入一个参数判断是否打印日志
def ceshi():
    print("测试函数1.......")
    time.sleep(2)
ceshi()

@show_time()   #测试函数2不需要打印日志 所以没有传入参数
def ceshi2():
    print("测试函数2.......")
    time.sleep(2)
ceshi2()

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